Welcome to our blog for Intellectual Property Law and Practice in Latin America!
¡Bienvenidos a nuestro blog de Derecho y Práctica de la Propiedad Intelectual en Latinoamérica!
Bem-vindo ao nosso blog sobre Direito e Prática de Propriedade Intelectual na América Latina!

Monday, 1 June 2020

Verónica Rodríguez Arguijo

Upcoming events


WHAT'S GOING ON THIS WEEK?

On 2 June 2020, the Brazilian Intellectual Property Association (ABPI) will hold the webinar Influencers: Legal and Behavioural Aspects in light of the Pandemic (in Portuguese). The speakers are Gisela Peres Neves Baptista, Gustavo Escobar, and Camila Coutinho. The moderator is Deborah Portilho. Register here

The webinar Federal Law on Plant Varieties: Myths and Realities to the Amendment to UPOV-91 (in Spanish) will take place on 3 June 2020. The event is part of the Permanent Seminar on Intellectual Property 2020-1 (PSIP) which is organized by the Legal Research Institute (IIJ) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The speaker is Leobigildo Córdova Téllez, Director General of the National Service for the Inspection and Certification of Seeds (SNICS). 

On the same day, the webinar Intellectual Property Aspects of Live Streaming organized by the Brazilian Association of Industrial Property Agents (ABAPI), will be streamed on ABAPI TV (YouTube channel). The speakers are Ana Paula Borges Martins, Rafael Atab, and Cláudio Lins de Vasconcelos. The moderator is Ana Beatriz N. Guerra. 

On 4 June 2020, the following webinars are scheduled: 

WIPO CONVERSATION ON IP AND AI 

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) announced the Second Session of the WIPO Conversation on IP and AI will be held online from 7 to 9 July 2020. 

The First Session took place in September 2019 and “brought together member states and other stakeholders to discuss the impact of Al on IP policy”. The Revised Issues Paper on Intellectual Property Policy and Artificial Intelligence containing the results of the public consultation launched after the first session can be reviewed here


PAST EVENTS 

Did you miss some events held the last week? The following are still available on-demand: 
If you have a craving for more, check it out the full list of events here

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Saturday, 30 May 2020

Verónica Rodríguez Arguijo

La OMPI pone en marcha su servicio de pruebas digitales WIPO PROOF


El 27 de mayo de 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Propiedad Intelectual (OMPI) anunció la puesta en marcha de su servicio en línea a nivel mundial WIPO PROOF, que produce evidencia a prueba de manipulaciones con respecto a la existencia de un archivo digital en un tiempo determinado. 

Por el momento, el nuevo servicio está disponible sólo en inglés. Se puede acceder al mismo a través del Portal de PI de la OMPI en la categoría ‘Evidencia Digital´ y el sitio web dedicado a WIPO PROOF

El video en que Francis Gurry (Director General de la OMPI) anuncia la puesta en marcha del nuevo servicio, así como el comunicado de prensa respectivo en español, pueden revisarse aquí

La OMPI señaló que el nuevo servicio “representa un paso importante en la ampliación de [sus] servicios … que satisfacen la demanda de la economía digital” y constituye una forma adicional de “salvaguardar los valiosos activos intelectuales” de innovadores y creadores. Del mismo modo, la herramienta ayudará a “mitigar el riesgo de futuros litigios judiciales” y a sentar “las bases del registro de un derecho de PI en un momento dado”. 

¿Tienes curiosidad sobre el funcionamiento de WIPO PROOF? Aquí está mi reporte. 

Fichas digitales con sellado de tiempo (tokens)

La OMPI actúa como autoridad de sellado de tiempo (TSA) al crear una ficha digital o token (una huella digital única de un archivo digital en cualquier formato y tamaño) que, una vez que se genera, se almacena en los servidores de la OMPI en Suiza. 

Cabe destacar que, el archivo digital no es almacenado en los servidores de la OMPI, sino que “una función de cifrado criptográfico [lo] procesa … mientras aún está en su ubicación original, produciendo un valor hash que identifica ese archivo de forma única”. 

De acuerdo con la política de sellado de tiempo de WIPO PROOF (disponible aquí), el servicio está alineado “con las mejores prácticas, normas y reglamentos en todo momento”, entre los que se incluyen, el Reglamento eIDAS (Reglamento 910/2014 del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo, de 23 de julio de 2014, relativo a la identificación electrónica y los servicios de confianza para las transacciones electrónicas en el mercado interior) y el estándar RFC 3161 (Internet X.509 Protocolo de sellado de tiempo para Infraestructura de Clave Pública) del Grupo de Trabajo de Ingeniería de Internet (IETF). 

Categorías de activos intelectuales

El nuevo servicio se puede usar para crear pruebas digitales de activos intelectuales, independientemente de que también estén protegidos formalmente por derechos de Propiedad Intelectual (PI). Por lo tanto, los archivos digitales utilizados para crear las fichas digitales (tokens) pueden contener secretos comerciales, algoritmos de inteligencia artificial, diseños textiles, datos de investigación científica, guiones, partituras y registros empresariales. 

Las siguientes categorías están disponibles cuando se solicita la creación de una ficha digital (token) en el tablero de control de WIPO PROOF
 [mi traducción del inglés]
  • Secretos industriales (“saber hacer” [know-how] no revelado) 
  • Obras de creación (auditiva, visual, literaria) 
  • Diseños de creación (logotipo de marca, textil, arquitectura y otros) 
  • Diseños industriales (esquemas técnicos, planos, procesos y otros) 
  • Código (para software, aplicaciones, juegos y otros) 
  • Investigación (reportes de laboratorio, informes y otros resultados) 
  • Datos (entrenamiento de algoritmo de inteligencia artificial, del genoma, y otros) 
  • Documento firmado digitalmente (contractos, cartas, certificados y otros) 
  • Otros (p. ej., documentación relativa a un siniestro o documentos sin firmar) 
Creación de una ficha digital (token)

El proceso para crear una ficha digital (token) es sencillo. Los requisitos son: una cuenta OMPI, el archivo digital en cualquier formato y un método de pago (p. ej., una cuenta corriente en la OMPI o un paquete de fichas comprado). 

Como ya fue mencionado, el archivo digital no se almacena en los servidores de la OMPI, sino que sólo es seleccionado desde el dispositivo donde se encuentra ubicado. Se pueden seleccionar hasta 20 archivos al mismo tiempo. 

Un archivo equivale a una ficha digital (token), que cuesta 20 francos suizos. También se pueden comprar paquetes de fichas digitales a precios reducidos: 10 fichas (190 francos suizos), 100 fichas (1,800 francos suizos), 200 fichas (3,400 francos suizos), etc. Si se compra un paquete, la ficha digital creada se deduce del monto total del paquete. Los paquetes comprados son válidos por dos años, después de lo cual, las fichas no usadas (no creadas), se pierden. 

Asimismo, se debe indicar la titularidad del archivo digital: una persona física que es propietaria del archivo; una persona autorizada por la empresa/organización que es propietaria del archivo o es representante legal de quien ostenta la titularidad del archivo. Las obligaciones de los usuarios de WIPO PROOF, entre las que se incluyen, la exactitud de la información proporcionada, pueden consultarse aquí

Una vez que el pago ha sido procesado, la ficha digital es creada (la cual se puede descargar de inmediato) y se almacena una copia en los servidores de la OMPI. Una explicación detallada del proceso técnico para crear una ficha digital (token) está disponible en español aquí

Las fichas digitales (tokens) WIPO PROOF no caducan. Sin embargo, se almacenan de forma segura en los servidores de la OMPI durante cinco años, pudiéndose renovar por otros 5 años mediante el pago de la tarifa respectiva. 

Verificar una ficha digital (token)

Una ficha digital (token) generada por WIPO PROOF puede ser verificada por cualquiera aquí. El proceso de validación tarda unos segundos para una ficha digital. Los requisitos son: el archivo digital y el token WIPO PROOF a validar (no se requiere una cuenta OMPI). 

El proceso de validación consiste en la comparación técnica entre “el valor hash del archivo digital original [y] el valor hash contenido en el token WIPO PROOF”. Si coinciden, se muestra un mensaje indicando que el proceso de validación fue exitoso. De igual manera, el mensaje también contiene el día y hora (incluyendo segundos) en que la ficha digital (token) fue creada y verificada. 

En esta etapa, se puede solicitar un certificado confirmando el proceso de validación por 20 francos suizos. El certificado de validación es sellado y firmado por la OMPI. Un ejemplo de certificado de validación puede consultarse aquí

Si el archivo digital ha sido modificado, el proceso de validación no se lleva a cabo y aparece el siguiente mensaje: “No se pudo verificar con éxito el token, ya que no es válido o no coincide con el archivo digital presentado” [mi traducción del inglés]. 

Comentarios

La puesta en marcha del nuevo servicio de la OMPI generó mucha expectación. Contrariamente a algunas suposiciones, WIPO PROOF no utiliza cadena de bloques [blockchain] (entre otras razones, por cuestiones de anonimato, como lo indica la OMPI aquí) sino que se basa en la tecnología de Infraestructura de Clave Pública (PKI). Sin embargo, un componente opcional de blockchain podría ser agregado en el futuro. 

Del mismo modo, no debe suponerse que WIPO PROOF otorga derechos de propiedad intelectual (PI). En tal sentido, la herramienta no reemplaza los sistemas de registro de PI nacionales o regionales existentes a nivel mundial. 

Considero que la herramienta será útil, no sólo para creadores sino también para aquellos interesados en la gestión de activos intelectuales, incluyendo carteras complejas de derechos de propiedad intelectual que son gestionadas de forma interna y por firmas legales. 

Sin embargo, debe tenerse en cuenta que las fichas digitales (tokens) y los certificados de validación WIPO PROOF no respaldan la veracidad o el contenido de la información incluida en el archivo digital, sino que sólo demuestran la existencia de dicho archivo digital en un tiempo determinado y que no ha sido modificado

Sin duda alguna, será interesante ver cómo son utilizadas las pruebas digitales WIPO PROOF en litigios de Propiedad Intelectual en aquellas jurisdicciones en las que la evidencia digital es legalmente reconocida y aceptada. 

Créditos: 
Imagen 1 es del sitio oficial de la OMPI
Imágenes 2 y 3 son cortesía de Riana Harvey. 


La versión en inglés de este artículo fue publicada primero en el blog The IPKat.
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Monday, 25 May 2020

Verónica Rodríguez Arguijo

Upcoming events


WHAT'S GOING ON THIS WEEK?

On 26 May 2020, the online seminar Madrid and The Hague systems in Mexico, organized by WIPO and the Mexican Institute of Industrial Property (IMPI) will be streamed on Facebook. The speakers include Juan Lozano (IMPI), Victor M. Guizar (WIPO), Grégoire Bisson (WIPO), Päivi Lähdesmäki (WIPO), Geneviève Steimle (WIPO) and Martin Schlötelburg (IP Key Latin America). The seminar will be held in Spanish and English. The program can be reviewed here.

On the same day, the Mexican Association for the Protection of Intellectual Property (AMPPI) will hold the webinar COFEPRIS and the pharmaceutical industry in light of COVID-19 (in Spanish). The speakers are Rodolfo Barreda Alvarado and Jean Yves Peñalosa Sol la Lande.

Meanwhile, the webinar COVID-19 and the impact on the relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and patents (in Portuguese) will also take place on 26 May 2020. The event is organized by the Brazilian Intellectual Property Association (ABPI) and the speaker is R. Craig Tucker.

On 27 May 2020, it is scheduled the webinar Intellectual Property in Brazil: Tips for Protecting and Managing your IPRs in Unprecedented Times which will be held in English and is organized by the Latin America IPR Helpdesk. Some of the speakers are Fernando Martínez Tejedor (Delegation of the European Union in Argentina), Joachim Jakobsen (Delegation of the European Union in Brazil) and Mariano Riccheri (IP Key LA).

Meanwhile, ABPI will hold the webinar COVID-19 and the future of the Courts (in Portuguese). The speakers are Luiz Fux (judge of the Brazilian Supreme Federal Court), Luis Felipe Salomão and Benedito Gonçalves (judges of the Brazilian Superior Court of Justice). The moderator is Cezar Augusto Rodrigues Costa (judge of the Court of Justice of Rio de Janeiro).

The webinar Artificial Intelligence and Law will also take place on 27 May 2020. The event organized by the Panamerican University and the Mexican Academy of Cyber Law (AMDI) will have the following speakers: Andrés Piazza Cambiagno, Silvia Ada de Conca, Manuel Magaña Rufino and Jesús M. Niebla Zatarain.

On 28 May 2020, the following webinars are scheduled:

On 29 May 2020, the Latin America IPR Helpdesk will hold the webinar How To Protect Your Trade Mark in Latin America through the Madrid System (in English). The speakers are Simon Cheetham and Eli Salis.

On the same day, it will take place the round table Legal analysis of the amendments to the Copyright Law, organized by AMPPI. The speakers will be announced.

Last but not least, on 30 May 2020, the webinar Digital rights and copyright will be streamed on Facebook. The event is organized by AMDI, AMD, the Autonomous University of Nayarit and the Autonomous University of Colima. The speaker is Jesús Parets Gómez, director of the Public Registry of the Mexican Copyright Office.

COURSES

The Geneva Center for International Dispute Settlement (CIDS) announced the 2020 edition of the Latin American International Arbitration Course (LAIAC) will be held online from 20 July until 7 August 2020.

The LAIAC covers procedural and substantive matters in commercial and investment arbitration. The program is addressed to lawyers, government and public sector officials as well as advanced law students from Latin America and worldwide.

The LAIAC will be instructed in English except for one lecture in Spanish. Apply before 31 May 2020. Scholarships and more relevant information are available here.

PAST EVENTS

Did you miss some events announced here? The following are still available on-demand:

If you have a craving for more, check it out the full list of upcoming and recurring events here!


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Sunday, 24 May 2020

Verónica Rodríguez Arguijo

IPTango is pleased to announce the launch of our refreshed website!


IPTango was revamped to improve our readers experience with a fresh and user-friendly design. Check it out!

Now, the following sections are displayed on the menu located at the top of the blog:
  • About us. Find out how IPTango was created by Professor Jeremy Phillips, how to contact us for IP events and more relevant information about the blog. 
  • IPTango team. Find here more information about the current members of the team. 
  • Websites. A list of useful websites per country, international organizations, as well as links to treaties, agreements, and laws. 
  • Events. All the upcoming and recurring events announced on the blog. 
  • Policies. Find out our policies regarding guest submissions, comments, and privacy issues. 
The sidebar on the right-hand side contains the number of viewings IPTango has received, the recognitions awarded to the blog, links to our account on Twitter, the subscription form, and the most popular posts.

At the bottom of the blog, it is possible to search and review the blog archive, translate the blog into several languages, as well as other relevant information.

Enjoy our new website!

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Tuesday, 28 April 2020

Verónica Rodríguez Arguijo

[Guest Post] COVID-19: The Invisible Enemy Revisited

This post was first published on The IPKat blog:

The IPKat recently reported, here, on taken measures by the Israeli government to order the equivalent of a compulsory license to enable local companies to make use of the inventions in the search for effective treatment of the COVID-19 virus. Kat friends Alejandro Luna and Portia Guidotti (Olivares) consider how Mexico successfully controlled a pandemic virus in the past, without the need for compulsory licenses. 

In 2009, Mexico battled an outbreak of a new strain of influenza, the AH1N1 disease, also known as swine flu. The first symptoms appeared in the country at the beginning of April 2009 and, sometime thereafter, two already marketed medicines indicated for influenza, TAMIFLU® (OSELTAMIVIR) and RELENZA® (ZANAMIVIR), were found to be effective against the disease. The government imposed tight measures across the country. Millions of face masks were handed out to citizens and Mexico City carried out a 10-day quarantine. 

Eleven years later, we are in the midst of the COVID-19 crisis. COVID-19, contrary to AH1N1, is a coronavirus, rather than a strain of influenza. For this reason, we still know relatively little about the disease and although a vaccine is currently in the early stages of clinical trials, to date, no treatment has been identified and universally agreed-upon. 

COVID-19 treatments and patents 

There is evidence that medicines currently indicated and marketed for other diseases might be effective in the treatment of the COVID-19 disease. The majority are still in the experimentation stage, but the results appear to be positive. REMDESIVIR, which was tried only on a few patients in Wuhan, seemed to work well. CLOROQUINA, a treatment for malaria, has been shown to be useful for the treatment of serious cases of pneumonia. LOPINAVIR, a treatment for HIV, has proved to be useful. FAVIPIRAVIR has also shown positive results. 

Some of these products are currently patent-protected or are in the process of obtaining protection, while others are already in the public domain. There is concern that if they are approved as treatments for the COVID-19 virus, and there is a shortage of supply, third party pharmaceutical companies will not be able to produce the medicine without infringing the patent. This could deter these third-party companies from producing the medicine to combat the shortage in the fear of facing an infringement action. 

Compulsory license regulations in Mexico 

The Mexican Industrial Property Law provides for the grant of compulsory licenses in the event of a national emergency, such as a serious disease as declared by the General Health Council. This law helps protect against the risk that patent protection will hinder the production and/or supply of drugs in the event of a health crisis. 

According to Article 77 of the Industrial Property Law and Article 55 of its Regulations, the following conditions inter alia must be met for the grant of a compulsory license: 
  • There must be a risk that the lack of a compulsory license would prevent, hinder or increase the price of the supply, distribution or access to the patented product. 
  • The General Health Council must issue a declaration of emergency in the Official Gazette, justifying priority attention for the serious disease. 
  • Once the declaration of emergency is published, third party pharmaceutical companies can request a compulsory license from the Mexican Patent Office (IMPI). 
  • Through an agreement with the Secretary of Economy, IMPI may decide to grant the license and, if so, publish a declaration stating that the exploitation of certain patents may be carried out by the grant of a license for the public benefit; 
  • Subject to a successful challenge by the affected patentee to the grant of license and the declaration is upheld by IMPI, the Ministry of Health will establish the production conditions, quality controls, duration and scope of application of the license; 
  • IMPI will determine the appropriate royalties the licensee is to pay the patent holder, upon hearing submissions from both parties; 
  • The compulsory license is neither exclusive nor transferrable and will be in effect for as long as the public health emergency requires. 

AH1N1 in 2009 and COVID-19 now 

In the 2009 AH1N1 crisis, there were facts that could have led to the grant of compulsory licenses for the public benefit. In April 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) raised its alert level for the AH1N1 crisis from phase four to phase five, signalling that a pandemic was imminent. At that time, there were already two available treatments for the AH1N1 disease. 

Nonetheless, the requirements for compulsory licenses were not met, as there was nothing that indicated that the patent holders were unable to supply to drugs, that they had set prices too high or that they were blocking distribution. The General Health Council also had not published a declaration of emergency in the Official Gazette. 

There are signs that the COVID-19 pandemic is more serious and advanced. It has already been declared a pandemic by the WHO. Currently, there is no universally accepted treatment or cure. 

Conclusion 

There has been no precedent for a compulsory license being granted in Mexico, despite coming close during the pandemic of the AH1N1 disease. If a universal treatment for COVID-19 does become available and if it is protected by patents, the hope is that, similarly, such treatment will not be in short supply and therefore compulsory licenses will not be necessary. 

There are also other mechanisms that were used in 2009 that avoided the need for compulsory licenses, such as free licenses, patents dedicated to the public and pandemic pricing. Whether the current circumstances will lead to a different result under the provisions of the Mexican compulsory license provisions merits close attention.

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Tuesday, 18 February 2020

Verónica Rodríguez Arguijo

Call for WIPO Indigenous Fellowship Program

This post was first published on The IPKat blog:

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is calling for Expression of Interest for its Indigenous Fellowship Program. 

The program was launched in 2009. It is part of WIPO’s series initiatives seeking to involve indigenous people in the work carried out by the organization with the goal, inter alia, of fostering legal expertise and skills within indigenous people on matters that are relevant to them. 

Requirements 

An applicant must be an active member of an indigenous community, hold a university degree or equivalent education, have experience in indigenous matters and organizations, and be able to work in English. 

As well, relevant publications and a capability in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish, are advantages. 

The Program 

The fellowship will take place at WIPO’s Traditional Knowledge Division in Geneva. The program starts on 1 June 2020 and is for a one-year period that is renewable for an additional year. Travel expenses and a monthly stipend will be covered. 

A fellow in the program will participate in relevant activities related to indigenous matters within WIPO’s Division framework, such as: 

  • Contributing and participating in the Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (the IGC) and related meetings. 
  • Assisting in undertaking activities related to the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. 
  • Researching and drafting WIPO documents for raising public awareness. 

Expression of Interest along with a CV must be sent to grtkf@wipo.int, by post or fax, before Sunday 23 February 2020, midnight (Geneva time). More information here

Credit: WIPO’s picture, available here

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Wednesday, 29 January 2020

Patricia Covarrubia

Brazil: A sweet ending

    No comments:

The Brazilian IPO (INPI) left
2019 with a sweet Geographical Indication (GI).

The INPI published on the Revista da Imóvel Industrial (RPI) nº 2554, December 2019, the granting of ‘Capanema’ for the product ‘melado batido e melado escorrido’. The word ‘melado’ means syrup and in this publication, we learn that the syrup is for both ‘beat’ and ‘drained’. The syrup is produced by the use of muscovado sugar from cane sugar, also known as ‘brown cane sugar’.

The defined geographical area is located in the municipality of Capanema, Paraná. Capanema currently has 8 agro-industries and 16 sugar cane producers. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, they produce 400 tons of sugar cane per year and nine thousand kilograms of ‘melado’ per month. The GI was granted on behalf of the Associação de Turismo Doce Iguassu.

This registration becomes the 8th for Paraná.
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