Welcome to our blog for Intellectual Property Law and Practice in Latin America!
¡Bienvenidos a nuestro blog de Derecho y Práctica de la Propiedad Intelectual en Latinoamérica!
Bem-vindo ao nosso blog sobre Direito e Prática de Propriedade Intelectual na América Latina!

Thursday 28 July 2011

Patricia Covarrubia

Brazil: a royalty fee affair

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The company CLUBE VIDALONGA PROGRAMA DE CONDICIONAMENTO FÍSICO LTDA ('the club' from now on) had used publicly music in its commercial activity without permission of authors and other copyright holders. Because of this, the Central Bureau of Revenue Collection and Distribution ( ECAD) brought an action against the Club to pay the fee due, plus default interest. Both parties appealed but only ECAD obtained leave to appeal.

The Terceira Turma do Superior Tribunal de Justiça (STJ) heard the appeal. The ECAD claimed that the Tribunal de Justiça do Rio de Janeiro (TJRJ ) did not consider the right of the author to price the use of his work by others. It also argued that the values set out in its Rules of Collection for the fines are binding on the parties who make use of its members’ works.

The minister Massami Uyeda, rapporteur of the appeal, acknowledged that indeed copyright holders have the prerogative to fix the value for the use of their work. However, Law 9.610/98, which regulates the copyright, does not expressly determine these values when there is an illicit use. Therefore, values of fines, interest and other charges arising from such actions are determined by civil legislation and not by the Rules of ECAD.

Finally, it was said that the unauthorized use of artistic work does not create a contractual relationship between the user and the author - it bypasses the contractual relationship and does not create links between them. With this reasoning, the minister denied the appeal of ECAD supported by all members of the Terceira Turma of the STJ.

An overview of the case can be read here.
The stages of the case here.
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Wednesday 27 July 2011

Patricia Covarrubia

Handicraft becomes a 'handy' GI in Brazil

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This week the Brazilian Instituto da Propriedad Industrial (INPI) published the granting of the Geographical Indication (GI) in the form of ‘Indications of Source’(IS) to clay pots Goiabeiras. From the date of the publication, the Association of Paneleiras Goiabeiras has 60 days for the payment of the regulatory fee. After this requirement is fulfilled certification of registration will be issued.

The clay pots Goiabeiras are made with clay removed from Vale do Mulembá in the island of Vitoria, Espirito Santo. The tannin, used for sealing parts, is obtained from red mangrove bark. Both the extraction of clay and the removal of tannin are made in a sustainable manner, ensuring compliance with environmental legislation.

The INPI also informs that with the registration of clay pots Goiabeiras, it brings to eleven the number of Brazilian products with certified origin through GI. This is the second for a handcrafted product – last month INPI granted GI to craft of golden grass Jalapão.
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Tuesday 19 July 2011

Patricia Covarrubia

Wonders of the Peruvian Spirit

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The Auditorium of INDECOPI was the place chosen for the launch of the book ‘Denominacion de Origin. Maravillas del Espiritu Peruano’ (‘Denomination of Origin. Wonders of the Peruvian Spirit’).

According to INDECOPI the book “makes a journey through pre-Inca myths, historical documents and the experience of existing producers who continue to use the same techniques of production and processing.” It adds, “the book provides a comprehensive overview of the historical factor, ethnographic, archaeological and human, which gives the category of 'unique' to our designations of origin.”

INDECOPI is the competent authority to grant DOs in Peru and until 2005 Pisco was the only one - today there are seven more DOs in Peru.

INDECOPI informs that the book was possible through the cooperation of USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development). The launch of the book was attended by representatives of different associations of DOs, as well as INDECOPI’s and USAID’s representatives.
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Monday 18 July 2011

Patricia Covarrubia

Teamwork & Collaboration - does it work?

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PROSUR, a group of nine South American countries – Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname and Uruguay – formed to assist in the improvement of services to local and international users of the IP system will start very soon. In August the pilot project will start collaborative actions in the patent examination system, helping to speed tests throughout the region. The decision was made during a meeting on July 14, 2011 (as informed here), at the headquarters of the INPI, in Rio de Janeiro, with representatives from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay.

The countries will cross 300 patent applications in selected areas of biotechnology and mechanical system based in the technology platform called WIPO CASE allowing each country to examine the applications selected.

In the same line, the meeting also is looking for the inclusion of brands in the next stages of the PROSUR project.

In this pilot project, experts from each country will exchange information about the examination through online platform. This model of collaboration is said to help examinations to become more flexible and with higher quality.

The results of this first stage will be discussed in late November - will it work? Lets give it a positive thinking, at the end as Jean Shepard lyrics say 'too much to gain to lose'.
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Patricia Covarrubia

Nations as brands

Early on this year we brought you the news that Peru launched a logo for its country. This month after completing the first stage of diffusion of the campaign, the mark Peru prepares an international release. Certainly the mark distinguishes and represents the qualities of its nations and thus, promoting the image of a country as a key to sponsor and to encourage tourism, exports and also to attract more foreign investment.

Isabella Falco, director of the Country Brand Promotion – Promperú, stressed the importance of following the guidelines of the new visual identity of the country and asked not to use the logo indiscriminately, without seeking permission. Adding to this statement she mentioned, “the brand has cost us time, money and effort and all Peruvians have to care”.

To this declaration I would like to direct your attention (very briefly and without going into detail) to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property which Peru became member in April 1995. Art 6ter refers to the prohibitions concerning the use without permission of the competent authorities of State Emblems, and/or Official Hallmarks indicating control and warranty adopted by them. Surely, Promperú can use this Art if needed.

Peru has already been promoting its tourism in some countries such as the UK, Denmark, Germany and South Africa.
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Friday 15 July 2011

Aurelio Lopez-Tarruella Martinez

Mexican Senate Rejects ACTA

According to IP Watch, by the end of last month, the Mexican Senate approved a resolution (in Spanish) rejecting the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (in Spanish) due to the "absence of inclusion in the negotiations, potential negative impact on internet users’ access to knowledge, freedom of expression and other concerns". For that reason, senators asked their Government not to sign the agreement. The resolution is not binding, though.Further information on this topic can be found in Michael Geist's blog.

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Mexican trade mark amendment speeds applications with Paris priority

IP Tango has been informed that, on 10 June of this year, amendments to the Regulations of the Mexican Industrial Property Law were published in the Mexican Official Gazette. These amendments, which took effect from 13 June, seek to speed up the prosecution process for of trade mark applications, including applications to register slogans.

In short, with effect from applications made from the date of coming into force of the amendments, it is now no longer necessary to file a certified copy of a Paris Convention priority application. Instead, applicants need only indicate the priority filing date, serial number and country of origin in their application papers. Since Mexican Law provides for the invalidation of a registration in the event that the applicant supplies false information, the integrity of the system is sufficiently provided for without the need for a certified copy.

Source: "Recent reforms to the Mexican Industrial Property Law dealing with trademark priority rights", Olivares & Cia newsletter (further details available from Alonso Carmago 

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Patricia Covarrubia

Yee-haa! Payment of royalties

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Brazil, the Fourth Chamber of the Superior Court of Justice (STJ) decided that there may be collecting royalties for public performance of music in rodeo, even if promoted by city hall with no economic benefit.

The Central Bureau of Collection and Distribution (ECAD) filed a charge against the the city of Cesario , in São Paulo arguing that the city has promoted musical events called ‘Rodeo Country Fest’ performing musical works without the corresponding authorization and/or licenses. ECAD asked for the condemnation of the municipality to pay R$ 8,625.65 (value of assets not collected) plus a fine.

The Trial Court ordered the municipality to pay R$ 23,073. The Court of Justice of São Paulo (TJSP) amended the sentence, arguing that the collection of copyright is inappropriate, since there was no economic benefit, and that the political benefits arising from the event should not be confused with economic ones. ECAD appealed to the Supreme Court.

Superior Court of Justice (STJ)
The rapporteur of the appeal, Minister Luis Felipe Solomon, said that case law under Law No 5.988/1973 states that the existence of profit is essential to the impact of property rights. However, under the current Law 9.610/1998, there have been significant changes, including the point under discussion – economic benefit. He said that the Supreme Court has recognized in its jurisprudence, the feasibility of collecting royalties also in cases in which the public performance of copyrighted work is not done with gainful intent.

The decision was unanimous and the sentence was restored - city of Cesario Lange to pay R$ 23,073.

Legal process REsp 996852 found here.
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Rodrigo Ramirez Herrera @ramahr

PROSUR en funcionamiento a partir de agosto

El sistema de cooperación sobre aspectos de información operacional y de Propiedad Industrial (PROSUR) se ha puesto en marcha con una reunión de trabajo del Comité Directivo realizada en las oficinas del INPI de Brasil, en la ciudad de Río de Janeiro. Representantes de las oficinas de Propiedad Industrial de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, Uruguay y Perú sesionaron hoy con el siguiente orden del día:1.- Presentación de la Jornada. 2.- Evaluación sobre el Taller de Examinadores realizado en Santiago de Chile.3.- Avance del proyecto piloto WIPO CASE y Plan de Actividades para el Segundo Semestre del Año 2011.4.- Situación del llamado de la primera consultoría.5.- Conexión de las ONAPIs a EPOQUE. 6.- Consideración del Reglamento para el ingreso de terceros al proyecto.

Respecto al examen de patentes, se dará inicio a las acciones de colaboración en agosto de este año, ayudando a acelerar los exámenes de toda la región. Se decidió también incluir las marcas en las próximas etapas del proyecto Prosur que también incluye a Colombia y Surinam, y que es financiado por Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID).  De lo acordado, los países cruzarán información de las trescientas solicitudes de patente seleccionadas en sectores de biotecnología y mecánica, basados en la plataforma Wipo Case. Además, a partir de agosto, los países trabajarán con más de 300 solicitudes en las áreas de electrónica y productos farmacéuticos. En este proyecto piloto, los expertos de cada país intercambiarán información sobre examen de patentes a través de la plataforma en línea.  

Para evaluar los resultados de esta primera etapa se llevará a cabo una reunión de revisión a finales de noviembre en Ecuador.

El acta de la sesión de trabajo está disponible en castellano por gentileza del INPI.
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Thursday 14 July 2011

Rodrigo Ramirez Herrera @ramahr

Colombia aprueba el Protocolo de Madrid

Después del fin de la tramitación en el poder legislativo informado en este blog, mediante la sanción de la Ley 1455 de 29 de Junio de 2011 Colombia aprobó el "Protocolo concerniente al Arreglo de Madrid relativo al registro internacional de marcas" adoptado en Madrid el 27 de junio de 1989, modificado el 3 de octubre de 2006 y 12 de noviembre de 2007. Actualmente las partes contratantes del Protocolo son ochenta y cuatro. Este Protocolo forma parte del denominado Sistema de Madrid para el Registro Internacional de Marcas (el Sistema de Madrid), establecido en 1891, que se rige además por el Arreglo de Madrid (1891), el cual está administrado por la Oficina Internacional de la OMPI, con sede en Ginebra.

El Sistema de Madrid ofrece al titular de una marca la posibilidad de protegerla en varios países (Miembros de la Unión de Madrid) mediante la presentación de una solicitud única directamente en su propia oficina de marcas nacional o regional. El registro internacional de una marca tiene los mismos efectos que una solicitud de registro o el registro de una marca efectuado en cada uno de los países designados por el solicitante. Si la oficina de marcas de un país designado no deniega la protección en un plazo determinado, la marca goza de la misma protección que si hubiera sido registrada por esa oficina. El Sistema de Madrid simplifica la gestión posterior de la marca, pues con un solo trámite administrativo se pueden inscribir cambios posteriores o renovar el registro. También facilita la designación posterior de otros países.
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Patricia Covarrubia

Technology and Innovation - a collaboration

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Rio de Janeiro, July 12 20011 saw the launch of ‘Technological Innovation in Brazil: Performance, Policies and Potential’. The book “discusses aspects of the evolution of public policies for science, technology and innovation, bringing together contributions from makers of these policies”.

According to the editorial Unesp, the “book is a collection of articles that attempts to discuss from four points of view the development of technology in Brazil: Scientific Potential of Brazil; Innovation as a business strategy; Innovation in Brazil: case studies; and Innovation in Brazil: comparisons and success stories.

While there appears not to be any IP point of view I do not doubt that the book contains subjects that are quite interesting for any IP practitioner - at the end what would it be intellectual property without innovation and technology?
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Patricia Covarrubia

Recognising IP in the countryside

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Chile, the magazine ‘El campo’ (countryside) is celebrating its 35th anniversary and one of its articles refers to the importance of Intellectual property in this area.

The article written by Patricia Vildósola Errázuriz views IP as a key development. Interviewing Dario Polloni, general manager of Copeval (leader in the distribution of supplies and services for the Chilean agricultural sector), he asserts that Chile has great opportunities as an agricultural country and as an exporter of food which is recognized internationally as a reliable and secure market. However there is the need to strengthen IPRs since according to him if there is not “assurances for the generator of varieties of plants, grains, seeds, semen, or whatever today's technology that requires protection under patent, we cannot have them in the country”. This is enforced by the fact that all new developments that are being launched into the world are protected. Because of this, he says, it is important that Chile is seen internationally as protecting new developments.

Another point that the article made is that IP has been an important support in the development of powerful national seed industry. Therefore, with intellectual property rights at stage the country invest in research.

It is good to see that different fields acknowledge the importance of IP not only for the creators or authors but also for a country and a society as a whole.

Full article here.
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Wednesday 13 July 2011

Rodrigo Ramirez Herrera @ramahr

Newsletter del INAPI de Chile

Ya está disponible para ser descargado el Boletín informativo del Instituto nacional de Propiedad Industrial de Chile Inapi, correspodiente a Junio de 2011. 

El tema de portada de este tercer número es la puesta en marcha de los primeros cursos en línea de INAPI, de su proyecto "Plataforma de difusión de la propiedad industrial y transferencia del conocimiento" que desarrolla en conjunto con la Unión Europea, programas de estudio que estarán disponibles hasta septiembre próximo en el módulo e-learning

Contiene cápsulas de noticias, una reseña sobre diseño industrial y una columna de opinión.

Fuente: Inapi (Comunicaciones)
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Patricia Covarrubia

Brazil: the great number 10

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Yesterday, July 12, 2011, INPI published the granting of the Geographical Indication (GI) in the form of ‘Indications of Source’(IS) to the golden grass Jalapão, used to make bags, bowls, jewellery and other pieces (application being announced in this blog here).

From the date of the publication, the Association of Artisans in the Region of Golden Grass Jalapão Tocantins has 60 days for the payment of the regulatory fee. After this requirement is fulfilled certification of registration will be issued and Jalapão will become the 10th GI granted to a national product in Brazil.

To wear the No 10 jersey in Brazilian football means not only football skills but also leadership. Therefore, I hope that this number 10 to be given to the golden grass will provide the Association with a good opportunity to demonstrate that they possess all what is expected in the football field: great ability and good management.

Brazil Implementing rules and regulations regarding GIs:
INPI Resolution No. 075 of November 28, 2000
Normative Act No. 134 of April 15, 1997
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Rodrigo Ramirez Herrera @ramahr

Onapi de República Dominicana aumenta registro de patentes

El Director de la Oficina Nacional de la Propiedad Industrial (Onapi) Juan José Báez informó que más de 3.500 patentes industriales han sido registradas durante el primer semestre del 2011, en una tendencia acorde con el buen momento económico de República Dominicana.

Cada año se registran un promedio de 6.000 patentes de invención que evidencian el desarrollo de la investigación dominicana, especialmente en el sector alimentario, que lidera el ranking de registros.

Báez sostuvo que todos los años se produce un incremento mínimo en la cantidad de propiedades industriales que se presentan, pero que se mantiene constante. El director de Onapi aportó estos datos durante el acto de juramento de la Comisión de Ética Pública de la Onapi, compuesta por ocho miembros, cuya función es promover valores apegados a la moral, con el fin de evitar que los empleados de la institución cometan actos de corrupción.

Fuente: http://www.listindiario.com.do ( Windler Soto)
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Tuesday 12 July 2011

Patricia Covarrubia

INPI did it again - pipeline mechanism

The Brazilian Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI) reports that last Wednesday, July 6th, obtained another victory in the courts related to pharmaceutical patents. The 1ª Turma do Tribunal Regional Federal da 2ª Região unanimously upheld the decision which keeps a pharmaceutical product in the public domain. The medicine in question was Dronedarone used to combat cardiac arrhythmias. The patent holder intended to extend its period of August 2010 to one year later.

If you have kept an eye in this blog, you may have notice that in Brazil many drug patents have generated lawsuits because of the controversy regarding the pipeline mechanism (for some examples click here, here, here and here). The current Industrial Property Law, published in 1996, included the pipeline to protect inventions of pharmaceutical and chemical patents that were not possible to be registered before due to Brazil no allowing these types of patents. Nonetheless, through this system, the patent holder would have a year to request to the INPI the said protection and when granted it will worth the time remaining in the country in which it was deposited first - the first filing abroad, as stated by the Law and confirmed by the Superior Court of Justice (STJ).
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Friday 8 July 2011

Gilberto Macias (@gmaciasb)

México - Crecimiento en denominaciones de origen

En los últimos 10 años, México ha crecido considerablemente en el número de denominaciones de origen dentro del sector agroalimentario. Mientras hasta el año 1999 existía sólo una, actualmente otros siete productos mexicanos han obtenido esta certificación.

Los productos con denominación de origen son el Café cereza (Chiapas y Veracruz); el Mango ataulfo (Chiapas); Tequila, Mezcal y Bacanora (Jalisco principalmente); Vainilla (Veracruz) y el Chile habanero (Campeche, Yucatán y Quintana Roo).

Excluyendo al Tequila, todos los demás productos obtuvieron la denominación de origen entre 2000 y 2010. El más reciente es el chile habanero, que el 31 de mayo de 2010 obtuvo dicho título para los estados de Campeche, Yucatán y Quintana Roo.

Eso son olvidar que ya hay otra denominación en trámite en trámite

Más información aquí.
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Thursday 7 July 2011

Patricia Covarrubia

Red carpet for the world ranking of innovation

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A survey conducted annually by INSEAD, a leading business school in Europe presented last Thursday 30th June, in Paris a research indicating the Global Innovation Index 2011.

It can be noted that few Latin American countries are placed in the top 50 (the Global Innovation Index (GII)). Chile is in the lead ranking 38th, Costa Rica ranked 45th and Brazil 47th respectively. In the top 10 are 6 European countries, 2 Asian and 2 North American.

For the construction of the data, criteria such as political and regulatory environments, access to credit, indicators of basic and higher education, the consumption of cultural and leisure activities were countable. It appears that the study took criteria which went beyond traditional ones like patents issued, and research and development (R&D) expenditures.

I do recommend having a look to Chapter 2 of this study - it relates to innovation in Latin America. The study indicates how public policy tools have fostered innovation in Chile and Brazil and gives some examples of innovations taking place in this side of the pond.

For the study, organizations such as Alcatel-Lucent, Booz & Company, the Confederation of Indian Industry(CII),and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) have contributed.

The ranking is available here.
Brazil point of view here.
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Wednesday 6 July 2011


Venezuela's smuggling law may assist IP owners

The National Assembly of Venezuela reportedly enacted a Criminal Smuggling Law which was published late last year. Two provisions of the law are said to be of specific benefit to intellectual property owners. The first provides that penalties will be increased by 50 percent if the smuggled goods infringe IP rights. This means that a person convicted of the “simple smuggling” of goods bearing a counterfeit mark may be imprisoned for 9 to 12 years. Secondly, seized goods that infringe IP rights must be publicly destroyed or incinerated within six months after conviction of the defendant, in the presence of the presiding judge and a representative of the Attorney General’s Office. As an alternative, the goods may be donated to not-for-profit associations or institutions after removal of the infringing mark.

It's not only smugglers who are at risk from this law. Customs officials who appropriate, dispose of, consume or distribute seized goods, or who interfere with their delivery to a competent authority, may be imprisoned for five to nine years.

Source: INTA Bulletin, June 1, 2011 Vol. 66 No. 10
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Patricia Covarrubia

Testing, testing, 1,2,3

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From July 2011, the Brazilian Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI) is testing a method which will help users of the patent system. The system called ‘e-Patentes/carta patente’ allows users to access ‘Cartas Patentes’ (patent letters) or ‘Certificados de Adição de Invenção’ (Certificates of Addition of Invention) granted in accordance with Article 38 of Law 9279/96. They are available as PDF files and digital certification.

This is, according to the report brought by INPI, a further step towards full implementation of e-Patents to external users in 2012.

The system is being tested and initially the data entered into the system is ‘Cartas Patentes’ or ‘Certificados de Adição de Invenção’ granted and published in the Journal of Industrial Property No.2080, ie from 16 November 2010. By the end of July, the system will include the decisions published in the Journal of Industrial Property No 1972, ie from 21 October 2008.

The existing procedure of requesting hard copy will still exist as an alternative to the electronic system.

Click here to access this new system.
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Tuesday 5 July 2011

Patricia Covarrubia

Brazil: ruling gives security to production of generic Gemzar

Patent applications filed in Brazil before 1996 which did not use the pipeline system cannot be granted. INPI’s practice was confirmed on June 30, 2011 by the1st Section Specialist of the Federal Court of the 2nd Region, in Rio de Janeiro.

According to INPI’s report the sentence gives “greater security to the production of generics and thus, expanding public access to treatment”. The aforesaid case relates to the examination of the drug Gemzar, used to treat certain types of cancer, and filed in 1993. INPI asserts that such a patent could only be examined if the applicant used the pipeline system. However, as the manufacturer has not made a new request through the pipeline, such claims should be dismissed because the previous legislation prevented the protection of such innovations.

This information is given by INPI and also found on the Advocacia-Geral da União; yet, there is no link to the case as such and/or at least more details. If you come across it, please share by the usual method –comment or send an e-mail to our team, thanks.
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Monday 4 July 2011

Rodrigo Ramirez Herrera @ramahr

Chile: Conferencias gratuitas online de Inapi

Con un taller dirigido a emprendedores e innovadores denominado “protege tu creación, conoce y utiliza las herramientas de protección de la propiedad industrial en Chile”, el Instituto Nacional de Propiedad Industrial (INAPI), en conjunto con la Red Universitaria Nacional (REUNA), comenzaron a partir del 30 de junio la segunda versión del ciclo de videoconferencias en el marco del programa “Fortalecimiento de capacidades en materias de propiedad industrial”.

Para el 2011 el programa incluye siete charlas que serán transmitidas online entre los meses de junio a diciembre, desde las oficinas del INAPI en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile y sin costo para los participantes.

El detalle del resto de las charlas y fechas está disponible en: http://www.reuna.cl/index.php/es/comunidades/propiedad-intelectual/programa-ciclo-inapi-2011

El objetivo es fomentar el conocimiento de la propiedad industrial mediante espacios de conversación con expertos, profesionales, innovadores y representantes de instituciones públicas, quienes profundizarán respecto a los beneficios e importancia que ofrece la propiedad intelectual e industrial para el desarrollo del país.

Los interesados en seguir este ciclo podrán participar asistiendo a alguna de las salas de transmisión inscritas o vía streaming (en vivo y directo por Internet), para lo cual se deben inscribir previamente en el sitio web http://www.reuna.cl/index.php/es/comunidades/propiedad-intelectual/inscripcion

Fuente: Diego Ponce, Comunicaciones Inapi
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Sunday 3 July 2011

Rodrigo Ramirez Herrera @ramahr

Perú promulga Ley de Protección de datos personales

Con fecha 3 de julio de 2011 se ha publicado en el Diario Oficial El Peruano la Ley N° 29733 “Ley de Protección de Datos Personales”. 

La norma, propuesta por el Ejecutivo, consta de un título preliminar con disposiciones generales, otros siete títulos, 40 artículos y disposiciones complementarias finales. Dispone que el tratamiento de los datos personales debe realizarse con pleno respeto de los derechos fundamentales de sus titulares y sólo pueden ser objeto de tratamiento con consentimiento de su titular, salvo ley autoritativa al respecto. En este último caso, precisa la ley, el consentimiento debe ser previo, informado, expreso e inequívoco, y en el caso de datos sensibles, el consentimiento para efectos de su tratamiento debe efectuarse por escrito.

También se indica que las limitaciones al ejercicio del derecho fundamental a la protección de datos personales solo pueden ser establecidas por ley, respetando su contenido esencial y estar justificadas en razón del respeto de otros derechos fundamentales o bienes constitucionalmente protegidos.

En el caso de las comunicaciones, telecomunicaciones, sistemas informáticos o sus instrumentos, cuando sean de carácter privado o uso privado, solo pueden ser abiertos, incautados, interceptados o intervenidos por mandamiento del juez o con autorización de su titular, con las garantías previstas en la ley. Asimismo, se señala que se debe guardar secreto de los asuntos ajenos al hecho que motiva su examen y que los datos personales obtenidos con violación de este precepto carecen de efecto legal. 

Fuente:  www.elperuano.pe.com 
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